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    Estonia Geography 2001

      Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

      Map references: Europe

      total: 45,226 sq km
      land: 43,211 sq km
      water: 2,015 sq km
      note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

      Land boundaries:
      total: 633 km
      border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

      Coastline: 3,794 km

      Maritime claims:
      exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
      territorial sea: 12 NM

      Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

      Terrain: marshy, lowlands

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
      highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

      Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 25%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 11%
      forests and woodland: 44%
      other: 20% (1996 est.)

      Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1996 est.)

      Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

      Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      NOTE: The information regarding Estonia on this page is re-published from the 2001 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Estonia Geography 2001 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Estonia Geography 2001 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)