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    Mongolia Geography 2001

      Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

      Map references: Asia

      total: 1.565 million sq km
      land: 1.565 million sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries:
      total: 8,161.9 km
      border countries: China 4,676.9 km, Russia 3,485 km

      Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

      Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
      highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

      Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate

      Land use:
      arable land: 5.7%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 81%
      forests and woodland: 11.4%
      other: 1.9% (2000 est.)

      Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: dust and snow storms, grassland and forest fires, drought and "zud", which is a combination of drought followed by harsh winter conditions

      Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

      NOTE: The information regarding Mongolia on this page is re-published from the 2001 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mongolia Geography 2001 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mongolia Geography 2001 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    >Revised 21-Dec-01
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